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CANCER CELLS

prostate cancer

 19-06-2019     By Myapplepharma Team

prostate cancer


In men, Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. Prostate cancer is cancer which develops in the prostate. It defined as a small walnut-shaped gland in men which produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. Typically, prostate cancer develops slowly and is started cramped to the prostate gland, where it may not cause serious harm. However, meanwhile most of the types of prostate cancer grow slowly and may need minimal or even no treatment, other types are hostile and can spread fastly.
Prostate cancer which detected early when it's still restricted to the prostate gland has an excelling chance of successful treatment.

Fast Facts On Prostate Cancer

Key points regarding on prostate cancer:

1. In male reproductive system the prostate gland is part.
2. In men, most common cancer is the Prostate cancer.
3. If diagnosed early it is treatable, before it spreads.
4. If symptoms occur, they involve problems with urination.
5. The best way to detect it in good time is Regular screening.

Statistical Data Of Prostate Cancer

In American men the most common cancer is prostate cancer other than skin cancer
The estimate of prostate in American cancer society in the US for 2018 is
1. New case of prostate cancer about 164,690
2. Deaths from prostate cancer about 29,430

Prostate cancer possible Risk

During lifetime among 1men of 9 will be diagnosed with prostate cancer
Primarily the prostate cancer develops in older men and in American men. In 6 cases almost 10 are diagnosed in men aged 65 or older and before age 40 it is rare. The average age about 66 at the time of diagnosis.

Prostate cancer caused death as follows

In American men, prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer. Among 1 man in 41 will die of prostate cancer.
A serious disease is Prostate cancer, but most men diagnosed with prostate cancer do not die from it. In fact, more than 2.9 million men in the United States who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer at some point are still alive today.

Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer symptoms will not appear generally until the prostate is big enough to affect the tube which carries urine from the bladder out of the urethra (penis).
An increased need to urine, often during night
While you pee straining will occur
A feeling that your bladder has not fully emptied
Weak flow
Bloody urine or blood in semen
Hesitancy in starting to pee
These symptoms will not mean always that you have prostate cancer, meanwhile most of the mens have larger as they get older because of condition like non-cancerous known as prostate enlargement.
Cancer signs may have spread involves bone and back pain, a loss of appetite, pain in the testicles and unknown weight loss

Causes Of Prostate Cancer

Normally the causes of prostate cancer are not known even though several things can increase your risk of developing the condition.
Age : most cases are diagnosed in men over 50 years of age and the risk rises as you get older,
Ethnic group : among men of African-Caribbean and African descent than in Asian men have prostate cancer is more common
Family history : having a brother or father who have prostate cancer before age 60 seems to chance of risk of developing it; research also enclose that having a close female relative who diagnosed with breast cancer may also increase your risk of having prostate cancer
Obesity : new research explains there may be a relation between obesity and prostate cancer, and a balanced diet and regular exercise may reduce your risk of developing prostate cancer.
Diet : research is ongoing into the relation of diet and prostate cancer, and there is some investigation that a diet high in calcium is linked to an increased risk of having prostate cancer.

Complication

Erectile dysfunction: Erectile dysfunction occurs from prostate cancer or from its treatment, containing surgery, radiation or hormone treatments. Medications, vacuum devices which assist in attain erection and surgery is available to treat erectile dysfunction.
Metastasizes (Cancer that spreads): Prostate cancer has ability to spread to nearby organs, such as your bladder, or travel via your blood stream or lymphatic system to your bones or other organs.
Causes pain while Prostate cancer which spreads to the bones and broken bones. Once prostate cancer has transmission to other areas of the body, it may still behave to treatment and may be controlled, but it's unlikely to be cured.
Incontinence: Can cause urinary incontinence by both prostate cancer and its treatment. Treatment for incontinence based on the type you have; how serious it is and the likelihood it will progress over time. Treatment options may contain medications, catheters and surgery.

Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

For Prostate cancer there has no single, precise test.
1. To check for infection required urine sample
2. To check level of prostate specific antigen, need to take blood sample
3. Digital rectal examination means examine the prostate by inserting gloved finger into your bottom.
The general practioners will determine the risk of developing prostate cancer depends on number of factors, containing PSA levels and the report of prostate examination.

MRI SCAN

The level PSA is increased, then doctor refer to take an MRI scan of prostate, if it shows any problem then followed to biopsy

BIOPSY Methods

There few types of biopsy as follows
A transperineally biopsy : needle inserted into the prostate via skin behind scrotum is done by giving general anesthetic. It decreases infection risk.
A transrectal biopsy : needle inserted into prostate via rectum, while this producer an ultrasound probe is inserted into your rectum. Done by giving local anesthetic.

Psa Screening

Consistently screening all men to analyze their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is a disputed subject in the international medical community. There are various reasons for this.
PSA tests are deceptive and can suggest prostate cancer when no cancer exists (a false-positive result). Most men are now affording an MRI scan before a biopsy to help avoid unnecessary tests, but some men may have intrustiva, and sometimes painful, biopsies for no reason.
Moreover, up to 15% of men with prostate cancer have normal PSA levels (a false-negative result), so many cases may be missed.
The PSA test can find hostile prostate cancer that needs treatment, but it can also find slow-developing cancer which may never cause symptoms or shorten life. Some men may face painful decisions about treatment, even if this is less likely now that most men are afford an MRI scan before further tests and treatment
In its early stages Treating prostate cancer can be beneficial in some cases, but the adverse reaction of the various treatments is probably so severe that men may choose to delay treatment until it's necessary.
Even though screening has been appearing to reduce a man's chance of dying from prostate cancer, it would mean many men occur treatment unnecessarily.
More research is required to regulate whether the potential benefits of a screening programmed would outweigh the harms of:
1. overdiagnosis : people being diagnosed with a cancer which would never cause symptoms or shorten life expectancy
2. overtreatment : unnecessarily people being treated for tumors which would unlikely be harmful

Prevention

1. Select a healthy diet full of fruits and vegetables
2. Select healthy foods over supplements
3. Excise most days of the week
4. Maintain a healthy weight
5. Discuss with the doctor about increased risk of prostate cancer

Treatment Of Prostate Cancer

For early and advanced prostate cancer has different types of treatment
Early Stage Prostate Cancer:Cancer size is small and localized, its typically maintained by one following treatments
Watchful waiting or monitoring: Regularly check PSA blood levels, but there is no immediate action. The risk of adverse problems sometimes outweighs the require for immediate treatment for this slow-growing cancer.
Radical prostatectomy: surgically removed the prostate. Traditional surgery needs a hospital stay of up to 10 days, with a curing time of up to 3 months. Robotic keyhole surgery includes a shorter hospitalization and recovery period and may be more expensive. Patients should speak to their insurer about coverage.
Brachytherapy: Radioactive seeds are embedding into the prostate to deliver aimed radiation therapy.
Conformal radiation therapy: Radiation beams are shaped in which the region where they overlay is as close to the same shape as the organ or region that needs treatment. This decrease healthy tissue disclosure to radiation.
Intensity modulated radiation therapy: Beams with fluctuating intensity are used. This is an advanced form of conformal radiation therapy.
In early stage patients received radiation therapy with hormonal therapy for 4 to 6 months

Advance Prostate Cancer

Its available in more hostile and will spread all over the body
Chemotherapy : recommended and will kill cancer cells around the body
Androgen Deprivation therapy (ADT)
It is hormone therapy
Reduces the androgen effects
Androgens are male hormone which stimulate cancer development
ADT will be reduced and even stop growing of cancer by decreasing in androgen levels
Long-term hormone therapy.

Fertility

In sexual reproduction prostate is directly involved, by removing semen production and fertility affects
Radiation therapy will affect prostate tissue and decrease the ability to father children
Damage of sperm occur and the semen inadequate for transporting sperm
Seriously Prevents mans reproductive capacity by non-surgical options