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CANCER CELLS

Treatment for breast cancer-symptoms,signs,stages I through IV

 12-11-2019     By Myapplepharma Team

Treatment for breast cancer-symptoms,signs,stages I through IV


Breast cancer is the most frequent occurring type of cancer in the United Kingdom. Ultimate women analyzed with breast cancer are over 50, but younger women can also get breast cancer.
Almost one in eight women is determined with breast cancer during their lifetime. There's a good chance of curing if it's observed in its early stages.
Because of this reason, it's essential that women check their breasts regularly for any difference and always get any changes checked by their GP.
In some rare cases, men can also be examined with breast cancer.

BREAST CANCER DEFINE AS

Breast cancer is a collection of cancer cells that become malignant and form a structure of tumor which arising from the cells of the breast. Usually the cells present in the lobules or in the milk ducts that leads to the nipple. Even though breast cancer generally occurs in women, it can also affect men.

STATISTICAL DATA ABOUT BREAST CANCER

For women

The American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute in 2018 according to them some statistic inference described as
1. Among 265,000 new cases of intrusive breast cancer will be recognize each year in women and over 2,200 in men
2. Almost 40,000 women and 480 men will die
3. in the United States there are over 3.1 million breast cancer survivors found.
4. The all breast cancer patients survival for five-year is nearly 90%
5. Even if breast cancer awareness and survival have increased automatically in the United States for all races, various studies have cited a significantly poor survival rate for African-American women compared to white women
6. the most common source of death in Hispanic women is breast cancer
7. depending on the organization making recommendations, the guidelines for mammography differ. Presently, the American Cancer Society suggests yearly mammograms for women aged 45-54 for women at average risk for breast cancer and women aged 55 and older are done mammograms for every two years, who should also have the option to continue yearly screening.

For men

In men the breast cancer is rare almost 2,400new cases diagnosed per year in US but usually has a naturally worse outcome.This is somewhat related to the often late diagnosis of male breast cancer, when the cancer has already spread.
Symptoms are same to the symptoms in women, with the best common symptom forming a lump or difference of skin of the breast tissue or nipple discharge. Even if it can occur at any age, male breast cancer typically occurs in men over 60 years of age.

SYMPTOMS OF BREAST CANCER

Breast cancer can have a lot of symptoms, but the first distinct symptom is normally a lump or area of thickened breast tissue.
Utmost breast lumps will not be cancerous, but it's always good to have them examined by your doctor.
You should also consult with your general practioners (GP) if you notice any of the following:
a difference in the size or shape of one or both breasts.
Fluid release from either of your nipples, that may be streaked with blood a bulge or bump in either of your armpits.
Dent (dimple) on the skin of your breasts
on or around your nipple appears some rashes
a different appearance of your nipple, such as becoming sunken into your breast
Breast pain isn't commonly a symptom of breast cancer.

CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS

Being female
Over age 50 (75 percent of cases)
Women whose mothers or sisters had breast cancer
Women who have never borne children
Women who bore their first child after age 30
Women with inherited mutation (BRCA1 AND BRCA2 GENES)
Personal history: In one breast diagnosis having a breast cancer will increases the risk of cancer in another breast or the chance of an extra cancer in the original breast.
At a younger age (before 12) women who started their menstrual cycle or went through menopause later (after 55) have a little increased risk.
The risk of breast cancer both in pre- and postmenopausal women but at different rates increases by being overweight or obese
Breast tissue: while Women documented by mammogram with dense breast tissue will have a higher risk of breast cancer.
While Use of oral contraceptives for last 10 years will increases the risk of breast cancer normally.
After menopause increases the risk of breast cancer by using combined hormone therapy
New research revealed that certain genes such as BRCA1 appear to be genetically perform to a higher risk of breast cancer. Mutations or difference of the BRCA1 gene rises the chances of getting breast cancer from 60 to 85 percent. Genetic monitoring can help a woman find out if she has the gene.
What prevents or cause breast cancer in women is unknown? The good thing can we do is find the disease and get cured at the earliest stage.

TYPES OF BREAST CANCER

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

1. Most common type of non-invasive breast cancer
2. early-stage breast cancer has not spread
3. Usually has a very high cure rate.

Invasive ductal carcinoma:

1. Most common form of breast cancer starts in the milk ducts of the breast and grows into other parts of the surrounding tissue
2. About 80% of invasive breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinoma.

Invasive lobular carcinoma:

1. Breast cancer starts in the milk-producing glands of the breast.
2. Almost 10% of invasive breast cancers are invasive lobular carcinoma.

The other breast cancers are less common and involve the following:

Mucinous carcinoma
1. Formed from mucus-producing cancer cells.
2. Mixed tumors contain a variety of cell types.
Medullary carcinoma
1. Infiltrating breast cancer that presents with well-defined boundaries between the cancerous and noncancerous tissue. Inflammatory breast cancer 1. This cancer makes the skin of the breast giving it the appearance of an infection appear red and feel warm.
1. Changes are due to the blockage of lymph vessels by cancer cells.
Triple-negative breast cancers 1. Subtype of invasive cancer with cells that lack estrogen and progesterone receptors
2. Have no excess of a specific protein (HER2) on their surface. 3. It tends to appear more often in younger women and African-American women.
Paget's disease of the nipple 1. Cancer starts in the ducts of the breast and spreads to the nipple and the area surrounding the nipple.
2. Usually presents with crusting and redness around the nipple.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma 1. Cancers have both glandular and cystic features.
2. They tend not to spread aggressively and have a good prognosis.,
Lobular carcinoma in situ 1. This is not a cancer but an area of abnormal cell growth.
2. This pre-cancer can increase the risk of invasive breast cancer later in life.
Uncommon types of breast cancer are
1. Papillary carcinoma
2. Phyllodes tumor
3. Angiosarcoma
4. Tubular carcinoma

STAGES OF BREAST CANCER

Breast cancer is a growing disease which advances via many stages. Doctor applies a staging system to examine the intensity of the cancer and the good treatment options.
Stage 0.
1. Known as noninvasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ.
2. This stage, the cancer has not spread from the duct into the surrounding breast tissues.
Stage I.
1. The cancer cells have not spread beyond the breast and the tumor is no more than 2 centimeters in size.
Stage II.
1. The cancer is 2 centimeters or smaller and has spread to underarm lymph nodes, but smaller than 5 centimeters
2. It has not spread to lymph nodes under the arm.
Stage III.
1. Known as locally advanced cancer, means the tumor in the breast is larger than 5 centimeters
2. cancer has more considerably involved the axillary lymph nodes, causing them to be attached to each other or to other structures
Stage IV.
1. Cancer means the tumor has spread from the breast to other parts of the body, such as the brain, lungs, bones and liver.

DIAGNOSIS OF BREAST CANCER

There are a various of ways to conclude if you have breast cancer:
Biopsies, involving needle breast biopsies i.e core needle biopsy or fine needle biopsy. In procedure of biopsies, a small piece of the lump is taken and checked by a pathologist
An investigation by a doctor.
To find the location of the tumor should do Ultrasound.
Abscission of the lump
Recurrent Cancer
1. It means which the disease reappears after the first treatment, even If treatment was at first successful.
2. Occurs due to either because undetected cancer cells remained in the body or the disease spread before treatment began. What do you mean by HER2 positive breast cancer?
1. Almost women of 20% with breast cancer, the cancer cells test positive for HER2.
2. HER2 is a growth-promoting protein situated on some cancer cells surface.
3. HER2-positive breast cancers lead to develop more fastly and spread more aggressively.
To Detect HER2 Tests 1. IHC test shows more HER2 protein in cells of cancer
2. FISH test performs if too many copies of HER2 gene tumor cells. This will be either positive or negative.
3. SPOT-Light HER2 CISH test determine too many copies of HER2 gene in the cancer cell reported as +ve or –ve.
4. Inform HER2 Dual ISH test- determine too many copies of HER2 gene in the cancer cell reported as +ve or -ve.
The drug therapies for HER2- positive breast cancer
1. Tratuzumab (Herclon) with chemotherapy
2. Pertuzumab (Parjeta) targets HER2 positive cancer
3. ADO-trastuzumab emtansine attached with chemotherapy drug
4. Lapatinib (Tykerb) is a kinase inhibitor, which is used with chemotherapy

PREVENTION OF BREAST CANCER

Lifestyle and Diet

Daily exercise and a healthy, balanced diet are usual given for all women as they can help prevent many conditions, involving heart disease, diabetes and many forms of cancer.
There has been relation between breast cancer and diet, and although there are no definite conclusions, there are benefits for women who:
Regulate a healthy weight
Exercise daily
Have a less amount of intake of saturated fat and alcohol
Check our healthy weight calculator to maintain healthy weight
While in menopause, it's especially important which you're not overweight or obese. because these conditions cause more oestrogen to be produced by your body, that can increase the risk of breast cancer.

Breastfeeding

Research have performed those women who breastfeed are statistically less likely to develop breast cancer than those who do not breast feed
The reasons have not understood, but it could be due to women don't ovulate as normally while they're breastfeeding and oestrogen levels remain stable.

TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER

Surgery includes

1. Lumpectomy
2. Mastectomy
3. Sentinel node biopsy
4. Axillary lymph node dissection
5. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy
Radiation therapy- destroys cells of cancer with heavy energy rays
Chemotherapy treatment that undergo through bloodstream to the tumor cell
Hormone therapy used to reduce risk of cancer reoccurrence after surgery