Trade name : Zidovir
Generic : Zidovudine
Strength availability : 300mg
Manufactured by : Cipla
Package : 60 tablets
Category : Anti-retroviral drug
Zidovir belongs to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Reverse transcriptase enzyme is effective for viral development. Zidovir tablets are co administration with tablets which containing an active composition known as zidovudine as an anti-retroviral medications and is combine with other anti-retroviral drugs for better activity. Patients administrating Zidovir tablets treatment should have better able to attach to multiple drug treatment drugs, thereby developing the compliance.
In adult :
The recommended dose is 300mg Zidovudine capsules for twice daily in combination with other antiretroviral.
Pediatric patients (age of 4 weeks to < 18 years) :
The dose is usually calculated based on body weight(kg) and not to be exceed the usual adult dose The patient body weight 4 to <9 = 24mg/kg/day given as 12mg/kg twice daily; 8mg/kg three times daily >9 to >30 = 18mg/kg/day given as 9mg/kg for twice daily ; 6mg/kg three times daily ≥ 30 = 600mg/day given as 300mg for twice daily ; 200mg for three times daily
Prevention of maternal-fetal HIV-1 transmission :
Maternal dosing: Before start of labor administrate 100mg orally 5 times /day. During labor and delivery, administered 2mg/kg IV over 1 hour followed by a continuous IV infusion of 1mg/kg/hr until clamping of umbicalcord Neonatal dosing After birth Dosing within 12 hours and continue through 6 weeks of age Oral route = 8mg/kg/day total daily dose but given as 2mg/kg for every 6 hours Intrevenous route = 6mg/kg/day total daily dose but given as 1.5mg/kg infused over 30min, every 6hrs Zidovir tablet should be administered with or without food.
The mechanism of action of zidovudine is also similar to lamivudine, like prohibition of viral reverse transcriptase by zidovudine triphosphate which is an active molecule of zidovudine. At last viral DNA chain ends occurs.
Quickly absorps and peak plasma level of Zidovir is 0.5 to 1.5hours;
Distribution: Highly distributed in body. The fundamental of Zidovir tablets are binding to human plasma protein with the range of <38% for zidovudine. The binding serum ratio of Zidovir is less.
Zidovudine is go through metabolism by glucoronide conjugation.
Route of elimination of zidovudine is urine 29%; excreted as zidovudine metabolite 45%. The zidovudine half life period of is 0.5 to 3 hours.
The possible adverse occurred during or after completion of therapy with Zidovir.
In case of neutropenia or thrombocytopenia, Zidovir treatment should be postponed.
Periodic blood cells count should be taken.
Lactic acidosis or hepatomegaly with steatosis :
This condition may leads to produce fatal cases, majorly in women. The most common adverse effect is obesity In severe condition treatment should be discontinued.
In HIV-1 infected patients who are receiving Duovir having a chance of getting myopathy. The prolonged use of zidovudine is responsible for onset of myopathy in patients.
Hepatitis B co infection :
To overcome the post treatment aggravation of hepatitis infection, patient should be monitored with hepatic function frequently after completion of treatment. The concurrent use of lamivudine may leads to cause this type of infection.
Drugs which are opposing the activity of zidovudine; The interaction of zidovudine with some drugs produces antagonist effects, like Stavudine Doxorubicin Nucleoside analogues like ribavirin Concurrent use with ribavirin, Ganciclovir, interferon alfa or other drugs may elevate the hematological toxicity effect of zidovudine. Avoid this concomitant treatment. Zidovir should not be interact with Zalcitabine which may changes or prohibits the intracellular phosphorylation of one another.
The patient are contraindicated to the component present in Zidovir tablets then Anaphylactic reaction may occur
The over dosage of Zidovir should be treated by undergoing hemodialysis. Hemodialysis helps to remove the content of zidovudine from the body. Provide supportive measures.
If a dose is missed by the patient then have the dose as soon as possible or skip the medicine and follow regular schedule. Please consult with the doctor
Loss of appetite
The most serious adverse effects are :
Hematological toxicity Symptomatic myopathy Lactic acidosis or hepatomegaly with steatosis Aggravation of hepatitis B Hepatic decompensated cirrhosis in patient with HCV/HIV co infection. Aggravation of anemia due to patients who are co infected with HIV-1/HCV getting ribavirin & zidovudine. Pancreatitis Immune reconstitution syndrome Lipoatrophy